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Vessel Types and Maritime Terminology

List of Abbreviations and Symbols




Chapter One Displacement Buoyancy and Stability


1.1 General Background

1.2 Displacement and Buoyancy

1.3 Stability

1.3.1 Statical Stability

1.3.2 Dynamical Stability

1.3.3 Metacentric Height and Range of Stability

1.3.4The Inclining Experiment

1.4  Form, Freeboard and Draught

1.4.1The Form of Vessels

1.4.2 Freeboard and Draught

1.4.3 Freeboard Calculations far First Class Iron & Steel Sailing Vessels


Chapter Two Weights and Centres of Gravity of Vessel and Cargo


2.1 Lightship Weight Centre of Gravity of Vessel & Cargo

2.1.1 Lightship Weight

2.1.2 Lightship Centre of Gravity

2.2 Deadweight and Its Centre of Gravity

2.2.1 Deadweight

2.2.2 Deadweight Centre of Gravity

2.3 Weight and Centre of Gravity of Ballast

2.3.1 Weight of Ballast

2.3.2 Centre of Gravity of Ballast

2.4 Displacement and Total Centre of Gravity




Chapter Three The Masting & Rigging of Sailing Vessels


3.1 Design of the Rig

3.2 Generating the Sail Plan

3.2.1 Calculating the Sail Moment

3.2.2 Procedure for Determining the Lengths of Masts and Spars an a Square‑rigged Vessel

3.2.3 The Calculating of Individual Sails

3.2.4 Calculating the Location and Rake of Masts, Steeve of Bowsprits

3.2.5 Lengths of Spars

3.2.6 Horizontal Distance Between Centre of Effort and Centre of Lateral Resistance

3.3 Examples Illustrating the Calculations used to Determine a Sail Plan

3.3.1 Square‑rigged Vessels Five‑masted Fully‑rigged Ship Five‑masted Barque Four‑masted Fully‑rigged Ship Four‑masted Barque Four‑masted Barque Comparison with 85 m Four‑masted Barque Fully‑rigged Ship Barque Stump Topgallant Barque Modern Barque of Conventional Rig Barque Furst Bismarck Barquentine Brig Brigantine

3.3.2 Topsail Schooners & Fore and Aft Rigged Vessels Two‑Topsail Schooner Three‑masted Topsail Schooner Topsail Schooner Topsail Schooner setting Double Topsails Topsail Schooner setting a Topgallant above a Single Topsail Fore and Aft Schooner Seven‑masted Fore and Aft Schooner Four‑masted Fore and Aft Schooner Three‑masted Fore and Aft Schooner Fore and Aft Schooner with Centreboard and Bilge Keels Fore and Aft Schooner with Leeboards Fore and Aft Schooner of Fine Hull Form

3.3.3 One‑and‑a‑half Masters `Galliot' 'Galeass' 'Jacht Galeass' "Ewerkahn" and "Fischer‑Ewer" Lugger "Kuff" "Kufftjalk"

3.3.4 Single Masted Vessels "Tjalk", Cutter "Kahn"

3.3.5 Pleasure Yachts Schooners Ketch Yawl Cutter Sloop


Chapter Four  The masting & Rigging of Steamships


4.1  Rig Configuration

4.2  Designing the Sail Plan

4.2.1 Required Sail Area

4.2.2 Location of Centre of Effort

4.2.3Distribution of Sail

4.2.4 Sample Calculations of Deriving a Steamer's Sail Plan Four‑masted Steamer Three‑masted Steamer Topsail Schooner‑Rigged Steamer 113.5 m Steamer,  95 m Steamer  70 m Steamer  52 m Steamer




Chapter Five Design & Proportions of Spars & Rigging


5.1 Loads Within Spars

5.1.1 Loads Within Lower Masts, Topmasts, Topgallant Masts and Bowsprits

5.1.2 Loads On Yards, Booms and Gaffs

5.2 Spar Proportions

5.2.1 Diameters and Scantlings of Iron and Steel Lower Masts, Topmasts, Bowsprits and Yards

5.2.2 Tables Giving Proportions and Scantlings of Spars on Sailing and Steam Vessels

5.2.3 Timber Spars Timber for Spars The Shape of Timber Spars Proportions of Timber Spars Spare Spars

5.3 The Design and Construction of Various Components of the Rig

5.3.1 Design of Lower Masts, Bowsprits, Topmasts, Topgallant Masts, Yards, etc. Riveted Lower Masts, Topmasts, Topgallant Masts, Yards, etc. Welded Lower Masts, Topmasts, Topgallant Masts, Yards, etc. Seamless Lower Masts, Topmasts, Topgallant Masts, Yards, etc.

5.3.2 Fittings for Lower Masts, Bowsprits, Topmasts and Topgallant Masts Arrangements for the Heel of Lower Masts, Bowsprits, Topmasts and Topgallant Masts,   Mast Partners and Bowsprit Beds Arrangements at the Heel of Lower Masts, Bowsprits, Topmasts & Topgallant Masts Mast Partners and Bowsprit Beds The Trestle Trees Lower Mast Trestle Trees Topmast Trestle Trees Trestle Trees without Cheeks The Fid The Cap‑Band Cap‑Bands for Lower Masts and Bowsprits Topmast Cap‑Bands Miscellaneous Fittings for Lower Masts, Topmasts & Topgallant Masts, Lightning Conductors Lightning Conductors Fittings for Spike Bowsprits Bobstay Band Outer Band Centre Bands for Jibstays Bowsprit Jackstays Fittings for Bowsprits with a Fidded Jibboom

5.3.3 Fittings for Yards Arrangement and Suspension of Yards Slings and Tyes Lifts Standards The Truss Lower Yard Trusses Trusses for Lower Topsail and Lower Topgallant Yards Parrels for Upper Topsail and Upper Topgallant Yards Parrels for Royal 'Yards Parrels for Small Timber Yards Fittings at the Yard Arms Yard Arm Bands Cheek Blocks and Sheaves for Sheets Studdingsail Boom Irons Additional Fittings at the Ends of Yards Miscellaneous Yard Fittings Jackstays Lugs for inner Lifts Sheet Fairleads Trusses, Parrels & Fittings for Self­ Reefing Topsails Cunningham's Patent Calling and Pinkneys Patent

5.3.4 Fittings for Booms and Gaffs Fittings for Booms Fittings at the Mast End of Booms Fittings at the Outer End of Booms Fittings for Self‑Reefing Booms Fittings for Gaffs Hoisting Gaffs on Tracks Hoisting Gaffs not on a Track Peak Halliard Bands Other Gaff Fittings

5.3.5 Brace Bumpkins

5.3.6 Sundry Fittings


Chapter Six Rigging Chain. Winches, Blocks & Sails


6.1 Standing Rigging

6.1.1 General

6.1.2 Sizes for Standing Rigging

6.1.3 Attachments at the Ends of Standing Rigging Rigging Screws Deadeyes and Lanyards

6.2 Running Rigging

6.2.1 General

6.2.2 Tackles and Their Lifting Capacity

6.2.3 Blocks General Hooks, Shackles and Eyes for Blocks Detailed Design of Blocks internally Bound Wooden Blocks for Hemp or Wire Rope iron Blocks for Hemp or Steel Wire Rope iron Blocks for Chain iron Blocks for the Chain Sheets of Topsails, Topgallants and Royals iron Blocks for Boom Topping Lifts, Throat Halliards, etc. iron Blocks for Peak Halliard and Gaff Outhaul Chains Snatch Blocks

6.2.4 Means for Working and Securing Yards Halliards Yards Hoisted by Halliard Winches Yards Hoisted by Conventional Means Means for Bracing Yards Braces Worked by Brace Winches Conventional Means for Bracing Yards Means +or Suspending and Topping Yards Lifts Foot‑Ropes Means for Setting and Furling Square Sails Tacks and Sheets for Courses Sheets for Topsails, Topgallants and Royals Bunt‑Lines, Leech‑Lines, Clew‑Lines & Reef Tackle

6.2.5 Means for Working & Securing Gaff Sails and Gaff Topsails Running Rigging for Booms Running Rigging for Gaffs Running Rigging for Gaff Topsails

6.2.6 Means for Working & Securing Staysails

6.2.7 Inventory of Blocks and Running Rigging for the Five‑masted Fully‑Rigged Ship Preussen

6.3 Sails

6.3.1 Material and Manufacture

6.3.2 Weights of Canvas Employed on Vessels of Various Types

6.3.3 Spare Sails